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ament_cmake_python user documentation

ament_cmake_python is a package that provides CMake functions for packages of the ament_cmake build type that contain Python code. See the ament_cmake user documentation for more information.

Note

Pure Python packages should use the ament_python build type in most cases. To create an ament_python package, see Creating your first ROS 2 package. ament_cmake_python should only be used in cases where that is not possible, like when mixing C/C++ and Python code.

Basics

Basic project outline

The outline of a package called “my_project” with the ament_cmake build type that uses ament_cmake_python looks like:

.
└── my_project
    ├── CMakeLists.txt
    ├── package.xml
    └── my_project
        ├── __init__.py
        └── my_script.py

The __init__.py file can be empty, but it is needed to make Python treat the directory containing it as a package. There can also be a src or include directory alongside the CMakeLists.txt which holds C/C++ code.

Using ament_cmake_python

The package must declare a dependency on ament_cmake_python in its package.xml.

<buildtool_depend>ament_cmake_python</buildtool_depend>

The CMakeLists.txt should contain:

find_package(ament_cmake_python REQUIRED)
# ...
ament_python_install_package(${PROJECT_NAME})

The argument to ament_python_install_package() is the name of the directory alongside the CMakeLists.txt that contains the Python file. In this case, it is my_project, or ${PROJECT_NAME}.

Warning

Calling rosidl_generate_interfaces and ament_python_install_package in the same CMake project does not work. See this Github issue for more info. It is best practice to instead separate out the message generation into a separate package.

Then, another Python package that correctly depends on my_project can use it as a normal Python module:

from my_project.my_script import my_function

Assuming my_script.py contains a function called my_function().

Using ament_cmake_pytest

The package ament_cmake_pytest is used to make tests discoverable to cmake. The package must declare a test dependency on ament_cmake_pytest in its package.xml.

<test_depend>ament_cmake_pytest</test_depend>

Say the package has a file structure like below, with tests in the tests folder.

.
├── CMakeLists.txt
├── my_project
│   └── my_script.py
├── package.xml
└── tests
    ├── test_a.py
    └── test_b.py

The CMakeLists.txt should contain:

if(BUILD_TESTING)
  find_package(ament_cmake_pytest REQUIRED)
  set(_pytest_tests
    tests/test_a.py
    tests/test_b.py
    # Add other test files here
  )
  foreach(_test_path ${_pytest_tests})
    get_filename_component(_test_name ${_test_path} NAME_WE)
    ament_add_pytest_test(${_test_name} ${_test_path}
      APPEND_ENV PYTHONPATH=${CMAKE_CURRENT_BINARY_DIR}
      TIMEOUT 60
      WORKING_DIRECTORY ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}
    )
  endforeach()
endif()

Compared to the usage of ament_python, which supports automatic test discovery, ament_cmake_pytest must be called with the path to each test file. The timeout can be reduced as needed.

Now, you can invoke your tests with the standard colcon testing commands.