## $$L_1$$ minimization (Linear Programming)

We solve the following problem that arises for example in sparse signal reconstruction problems such as compressed sensing: $\mbox{minimize } ||x||_1 \mbox{ (L_1) }\\ \mbox{subject to } Ax = b$

with $$x\in R^n$$, $$A \in R^{m \times n}$$ and $$m\leq n.$$ Reformulate the problem expressing the $$L_1$$ norm of $$x$$ as follows $x \leq u\\ -x \leq u\\$

where $$u\in R^n$$ and we minimize the sum of $$u$$. The reformulated problem using the stacked variables

$z = \begin{pmatrix}x\\u\end{pmatrix}$

is now $\mbox{minimize } c^{\top}z\\ \mbox{subject to } \tilde{A}x = b \mbox{ (LP) }\\ Gx \leq h$ where the inequality is with respective to the positive orthant.

Here is the R code that generates a random instance of this problem and solves it.

library(ECOSolveR)
library(Matrix)
set.seed(182391)
n <- 1000L
m <- 10L
density <- 0.01
c <- c(rep(0.0, n), rep(1.0, n))

First, a function to generate random sparse matrices with normal entries.

sprandn <- function(nrow, ncol, density) {
items <- ceiling(nrow * ncol * density)
matrix(c(rnorm(items),
rep(0, nrow * ncol - items)),
nrow = nrow)
}
A <- sprandn(m, n, density)
Atilde <- Matrix(cbind(A, matrix(rep(0.0, m * n), nrow = m)), sparse = TRUE)
b <- rnorm(m)
I <- diag(n)
G <- rbind(cbind(I, -I),
cbind(-I, -I))
G <- as(G, "dgCMatrix")
h <- rep(0.0, 2L * n)
dims <- list(l = 2L * n, q = NULL, e = 0L)

Note how ECOS expects sparse matrices, not ordinary matrices.

## Solve the problem
z <- ECOS_csolve(c = c, G = G, h = h, dims = dims, A = Atilde, b = b)

We check that the solution was found.

names(z)
##  "x"          "y"          "s"          "z"          "infostring"
##  "retcodes"   "summary"    "timing"
z$infostring ##  "Optimal solution found" Extract the solution. x <- z$x[1:n]
u <- z\$x[(n+1):(2*n)]
nnzx = sum(abs(x) > 1e-8)
sprintf("x reconstructed with %d non-zero entries", nnzx / length(x) * 100)
##  "x reconstructed with 1 non-zero entries"